3 edition of distribution of actual evaporation/evapotranspiration over East Africa found in the catalog.
distribution of actual evaporation/evapotranspiration over East Africa
Buruhani Salum Nyenzi
1980 by Republic of Kenya, Meteorological Dept., East African Institute for Meteorological Training and Research in Nairobi .
Written in English
|Statement||by Buruhani Salum Nyenzi.|
|Series||Research report / Republic of Kenya, Meteorological Department, East African Institute for Meteorological Training and Research ;, no. 7/80, Research report (East African Institute for Meteorological Training and Research (Kenya)) ;, no. 7/80.|
|LC Classifications||QC915.7.A42 N94 1980|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||vii, 29 p. :|
|Number of Pages||29|
|LC Control Number||81980343|
Global warming is expected to intensify the global hydrological cycle 1, with an increase of both evapotranspiration (EVT) and , the magnitude and spatial distribution of this. We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from – TerraClimate uses. Evaporation Abstract In the first part of this experiment, the relationship between wind speed and evaporation is investigated. We measure the evaporation under idealized conditions using a small wind tunnel. We then compare our results from the experiment with calculated values for the evaporation over .
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Evaporation tends to lower water level in a pond or wetland over time, and evapotranspiration acts to dry out the soil before the next storm. During storms, however, evaporation and evapotransporation are typically not significant compared to precipitation, discharge and infiltration, and are often not considered.
1. Introduction. Regional evapotranspiration (ET) from land surface is essential to understand water cycle, and to estimate surface runoff and groundwater (Idso et al.,Shukla and Mintz, ).Routine high quality data from satellite remote sensing has allowed capturing continuous ET maps on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales (e.g., Nagler et al.,Mu et al.,Leuning et Cited by: Reference evapotranspiration (ET o): Reference evapotranspiration is defined as "the rate of evapotranspiration from a hypothetical reference crop with an assumed crop height of m ( in), a fixed surface resistance of 70 sec m-1 (70 sec ft-1) and an albedo ofclosely resembling the evapotranspiration from an extensive surface.
The Lake Naivasha Basin is situated in the Kenyan Rift Valley at a latitude of 0 o 09′ to 0 o 55′S and a longitude of 36 o 09′ to 36 o 24′E covering an area that is approximately km 2 ().The maximum altitude is about m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.) on the eastern side of the Aberdare Mountains and the minimum altitude is about m a.m.s.l.
near the by: 4. A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink’s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern by: Materials.
Daily meteorological data from to were obtained from YCES. The ET 0, which refers to the ET from a reference surface, was calculated based on the T max and minimum temperature (T min), relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours, and other reference surface was a hypothetical grass crop with an assumed crop height of m, a fixed surface.
Potential evaporation (E p) and actual evapotranspiration (E A) values for 84 East African stations were estimated and mapped using Morton [12, 13, 14] data used in the study were long term averages up to and including TheE p andE A distributions for the months of January, April, and July and October; and annual are discussed.
HighE p values exist in the semi-arid/arid areas of. Lake Ziway, located in the rift floor, is the highest of a chain of four lakes: Ziway (elevation of m asl; average salinity of g l −1), Langano ( m asl; g l −1), Abiyata ( m asl; 18 g l −1), and Shala ( m asl; 19 g l −1).The open and shallow Lake Ziway has a catchment of about km 2, an average surface of km 2, an average volume of km 3 and a.
The actual evapotranspiration is an important, but difficult to determine, element in the water balance of lakes and their catchment areas. Reliable data on evapotranspiration are not available for most lake basins for which paleoclimate reconstructions and modeling have been performed, particularly those in remote parts of Africa.
Construction and spatial and temporal properties for a ° resolution gridded data set of monthly Penman–Monteith reference evapotranspiration estimates over the territory of the PR China (including Tibet) and adjacent areas (15°N–55°N, 65°E–°E) for the period – are described.
Estimation of daily evapotranspiration over Africa using MODIS/Terra and SEVIRI/MSG data Article in Atmospheric Research August with Reads How we measure 'reads'.
A case study over parts of East Africa for the JJA season shows that ET0 forecasts in combination with the precipitation forecasts would have provided early warning of recent severe drought events.
Evapotranspiration, Loss of water from the soil both by evaporation from the soil surface and by transpiration from the leaves of the plants growing on it. Factors that affect the rate of evapotranspiration include the amount of solar radiation, atmospheric vapor.
Global Surface Water Changes and Associated Increase in Evaporation. Between – and –, the Earth's surface gainedkm 2 and l km 2 of surface water area with a net gain of 95, km spatial distribution of net surface water area changes by basin is shown in Figure continents had a positive net change of surface water area.
Associated with the global increase in surface water area is the universal net increase in evaporation across all continents. Figure 9 shows evaporation changes caused by the conversion between land and water aggregated by basin.
Globally, evaporation increased by ± km 3 /year between – and – (Table 2). In this study, potential evaporation was defined as the rate of terrestrial evaporation (or evapotranspiration) that the actual ecosystem would attain if it were to evaporate at maximal rate for.
June is the warmest month, when the evapotranspiration exceeds 7mm (inches), whereas, January is the coldest month, when evapotranspiration of the country falls to 1mm (inches). SEES Sustainable Water Resources 2/30 4. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Introduction Evaporation: The process through which water is transferred from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere.
Evaporation is important in all areas of water resources Because it affects the capacity of the reservoir, the yield of river basin, the consumptive use of water by plants.
etc. Method for evaporation calculation Distribution of evaporation from the water area of the World Ocean Distribution of evaporation from the surface of the World Ocean during a year 3. Evaporation from land. Method for evaporation calculation Distribution of evaporation from continents Europe Asia Africa.
Author by: Wossenu Abtew Languange: en Publisher by: Springer Science & Business Media Format Available: PDF, ePub, Mobi Total Read: 66 Total Download: File Size: 47,7 Mb Description: The book is a thorough presentation of theoretical and applied aspects of the evaporation and evapotranspiration process supported by data from experimental is written in a way that.
Actual Evaporation = x Maximum Evaporation [Equation 7] Therefore, AQUASTAT has calculated that the actual evaporation from artificial lakes and reservoirs is km3/year. This value for each country and each year (taking into consideration the year a dam became. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of watershed hydrological cycle.
Spatial-temporal variations analyses of evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration (PET) have remarkable theoretical and practical significances for understanding the interaction between climate changes and hydrological cycle and optimal allocation of water resources under global warming background.
EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION. Overview and Basic Definitions. Evaporation is the process where liquid water undergoes a phase change to water vapor and disappears into the atmosphere.
Sublimation is a similar process involving the solid phase, ice or snow, that vaporize and become airborne. Evapotranspiration refers to the moisture loss from soils, either through plant transpiration (water extracted by the plants and lost through the leaves' stomata) or by direct evaporation.
States concluded that actual evaporation has decreasing and an increasing trend depending on the region (Hobbins et al., ). According to the study, most of Florida, including South Florida, has an increasing trend in actual evapotranspiration.
A follow-up study of trends in pan. Evapotranspiration is one of these key processes of the energy balance, because latent heat (energy) is required for evaporation to take place.
The energy balance at Earth’s surface reads LE = Rn − G − H W m−2, (1) where Rn is the net radiation, G is the soil heat. This paper analyses evaporation time series data for different stations in India, and for the country as a whole, for different seasons on both a short-term (15 years) and long-term (32 years.
The geography of a place, namely its latitude and climate, can also influence evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration is higher at locations close to the Equator.
If the area receives little rainfall, then evapotranspiration can reach %. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa: Shukla, S., McNally, A., Husak, G., Funk, Christopher C.
More Info: Assessing North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecast skill to assist in the early warning of anomalous hydrometeorological events over East Africa. Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, and Irrigation Water Requirements is a comprehensive reference to estimating the water quantities needed for irrigation of crops based upon the physics of evaporation and evapotranspiration (ET).
This new edition of which updates and expands the original, provides improved and standardized methods. Often, scientists distinguish between two different aspects of evapotranspiration: potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration or PE is a measure of the ability of the atmosphere to remove water from the surface through the processes of evaporation and transpiration assuming no control on water supply.
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION PROCESS Evapotranspiration is the water lost to the atmosphere by two processes-evaporation and transpiration.
Evaporation is the loss from open bodies of water, such as lakes and reservoirs, wetlands, bare soil, and snow cover; transpiration is. 1 Introduction  Mean global air temperature has increased approximately °C over the past years (–) and is predicted to increase by °C to °C, between and [IPCC, ].Climate change has strongly impacted both the water and carbon cycles, especially via processes involving evapotranspiration, which is a critical component of the water, energy, and.
Hsin-Fu Yeh, Comparison of Evapotranspiration Methods Under Limited Data, Current Perspective to Predict Actual Evapotranspiration, /, (). Crossref Amanda Hess, Bridget Wadzuk, Andrea Welker, Evapotranspiration in Rain Gardens Using Weighing Lysimeters, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, /(ASCE)IR An additional analysis has been carried out for African basins by comparing the simulated actual evapotranspiration data with Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GL50) dataset over the.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a term used to quantify all evaporative losses in a watershed. 1) Evaporation of water intercepted and stored by vegetation 2) Water transpired by vegetation 3) Water evaporated from soil.
ET accounts for about 60 to 70% of the water loss from a slope. lowers water content in soil. evaporation of water stored by. The use of actual evapotranspiration (ET a) instead of the reference evapotranspiration Here we focus on the concepts of actual evaporation (ET a) and reference evaporation of CMIP5 over Kenya, East Africa, Atmospheric Research, /es, (), ().
Average ET in South Africa (–) was estimated to be mma-1 or x m3a1 (14% of PET and 67% of rainfall), mainly in the form of plant transpiration (T, 53%) and soil evaporation (Soil E, 39%).
Evapotranspiration (ET) showed a slight tendency to decrease over the period – in all climatic regions, except in the. Land evapotranspiration (ET) is a central process in the climate system and a nexus of the water, energy and carbon cycles. Global land ET returns about 60%.
SSEBop Evapotranspiration Products (VersionJune ) Evapotranspiration (ET) is the combination of transpiration from vegetation and evaporation from soil. Actual ET (ETa) is produced using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important to the global energy balance and to hydrological cycling.
However, the extent to which ET0 changes, the main driving factors, and especially the implications of its shift for drought in Southwest China are not clear. In this study, trends in Penman–Monteith ET0 and other climatic parameters at 79 stations in Southwest China from to .The measurement of the actual evaporation rates in pans is very commonly used to estimate evaporation rates in surface-water bodies (e.g., lakes) and reference evapotranspiration rates.
Measured evaporation rates are a function of pan design, so standardized pan designs are typically used to allow for comparisons between sites.Data are presented on a 4‐weekly basis over the two years and for evaporation from three types of evaporation pan, and an evaporation estimate by Penman's method.
Evapotranspiration was estimated by the methods of Penman, Blaney‐Criddle, Thornthwaite, and Garnier's modification of Thornthwaite's method.